Positives and negatives of global warming
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What the science says...
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Negative impacts of global warming on agriculture, health & environment far outweigh any positives.
Here’s a list of cause and effect relationships, showing that most climate change impacts will confer few or no benefits, but may do great harm at considerable cost.
While CO2 is essential for plant growth, all agriculture depends also on steady water supplies, and climate change is likely to disrupt those supplies through floods and droughts. It has been suggested that higher latitudes – Siberia, for example – may become productive due to global warming, but the soil in Arctic and bordering territories is very poor, and the amount of sunlight reaching the ground in summer will not change because it is governed by the tilt of the earth. Agriculture can also be disrupted by wildfires and changes in seasonal periodicity, which is already taking place, and changes to grasslands and water supplies could impact grazing and welfare of domestic livestock. Increased warming may also have a greater effect on countries whose climate is already near or at a temperature limit over which yields reduce or crops fail – in the tropics or sub-Sahara, for example.
Warmer winters would mean fewer deaths, particularly among vulnerable groups like the aged. However, the same groups are also vulnerable to additional heat, and deaths attributable to heatwaves are expected to be approximately five times as great as winter deaths prevented. It is widely believed that warmer climes will encourage migration of disease-bearing insects like mosquitoes and malaria is already appearing in places it hasn’t been seen before.
While the opening of a year-round ice free Arctic passage between the Atlantic and Pacific oceans would confer some commercial benefits, these are considerably outweighed by the negatives. Detrimental effects include loss of polar bear habitat and increased mobile ice hazards to shipping. The loss of ice albedo (the reflection of heat), causing the ocean to absorb more heat, is also a positive feedback; the warming waters increase glacier and Greenland ice cap melt, as well as raising the temperature of Arctic tundra, which then releases methane, a very potent greenhouse gas (methane is also released from the sea-bed, where it is trapped in ice-crystals called clathrates). Melting of the Antarctic ice shelves is predicted to add further to sea-level rise with no benefits accruing.
A cause for considerable concern, there appear to be no benefits to the change in pH of the oceans. This process is caused by additional CO2 being absorbed in the water, and may have severe destabilising effects on the entire oceanic food-chain.
The effects of glaciers melting are largely detrimental, the principle impact being that many millions of people (one-sixth of the world’s population) depend on fresh water supplied each year by natural spring melt and regrowth cycles and those water supplies – drinking water, agriculture – may fail.
Sea Level Rise
Many parts of the world are low-lying and will be severely affected by modest sea rises. Rice paddies are being inundated with salt water, which destroys the crops. Seawater is contaminating rivers as it mixes with fresh water further upstream, and aquifers are becoming polluted. Given that the IPCC did not include melt-water from the Greenland and Antarctic ice-caps due to uncertainties at that time, estimates of sea-level rise are feared to considerably underestimate the scale of the problem. There are no proposed benefits to sea-level rise.
Positive effects of climate change may include greener rainforests and enhanced plant growth in the Amazon, increased vegitation in northern latitudes and possible increases in plankton biomass in some parts of the ocean. Negative responses may include further growth of oxygen poor ocean zones, contamination or exhaustion of fresh water, increased incidence of natural fires, extensive vegetation die-off due to droughts, increased risk of coral extinction, decline in global photoplankton, changes in migration patterns of birds and animals, changes in seasonal periodicity, disruption to food chains and species loss.
The economic impacts of climate change may be catastrophic, while there have been very few benefits projected at all. The Stern report made clear the overall pattern of economic distress, and while the specific numbers may be contested, the costs of climate change were far in excess of the costs of preventing it. Certain scenarios projected in the IPCC AR4 report would witness massive migration as low-lying countries were flooded. Disruptions to global trade, transport, energy supplies and labour markets, banking and finance, investment and insurance, would all wreak havoc on the stability of both developed and developing nations. Markets would endure increased volatility and institutional investors such as pension funds and insurance companies would experience considerable difficulty.
Developing countries, some of which are already embroiled in military conflict, may be drawn into larger and more protracted disputes over water, energy supplies or food, all of which may disrupt economic growth at a time when developing countries are beset by more egregious manifestations of climate change. It is widely accepted that the detrimental effects of climate change will be visited largely on the countries least equipped to adapt, socially or economically.
Basic rebuttal written by GPWayne
Update July 2015:
Here is a related lecture-video from Denial101x - Making Sense of Climate Science Denial
Last updated on 5 July 2015 by pattimer. View Archives
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Global Warming Essay: Environmental Effects
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- Length: 1827 words (5.2 double-spaced pages)
- Rating: Excellent
The greenhouse effect and global warming are issues that are talked about by geologists
all the time. The greenhouse effect is a natural process that keeps the earth at temperatures that
are livable. Energy from the sun warms the earth when its heat rays are absorbed by greenhouse
gasses and become trapped in the atmosphere. Some of the most common greenhouse gasses are
water vapor, carbon dioxide, and methane. If there were no greenhouse gasses, very few rays
would be absorbed and the earth would be extremely cold. When too many rays are absorbed, the
earth?s atmosphere starts to warm, which leads to global warming. Global warming can lead to
many problems that affects the environment in which we live.
In order to talk about global warming, we must first learn what causes the greenhouse
effect. A lot of the rays from the sun are absorbed by water vapor that is naturally in our
atmosphere. Water vapor accounts for ?80 percent of natural greenhouse warming. The
remaining 20 percent is due to other gasses that are present in very small amounts? (Murck,
Skinner and Porter 488). Carbon dioxide is also a big absorber of the sun?s heat rays. Humans
can cause a lot of carbon dioxide to be released. Every time we burn fossil fuels, we release more
carbon dioxide. Emissions from cars also increase the amount of carbon dioxide in the
atmosphere. If there is more carbon dioxide in the atmosphere more rays from the sun are
absorbed. This will cause the atmosphere and the earth?s temperature to warm. The warming of
the earth will cause the oceans to become warmer. When they heat up, more water is evaporated,
causing more carbon dioxide to be released into the atmosphere. Once this process starts, it is
extremely hard to control. If the temperature keeps rising, more carbon dioxide will be released.
Another greenhouse gas is methane: ?Methane absorbs infrared radiation 25 times more
effectively than carbon dioxide, making it an important greenhouse gas despite its relatively low
concentration? (490). There have been many studies on how methane is released into the
atmosphere. Methane in the atmosphere is ?generated by biological activity related to rice
cultivation, leaks in domestic and industrial gaslines, and the digestive process of domestic
livestock, especially cattle? (490).
An environmental effect of global warming is the fact that higher temperatures will lead to
a change in the water cycle. Some places may experience more rain. Warmer temperatures will
cause a greater amount of evaporation from lakes, rivers, and oceans. In some areas this could be
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Environmental Effects Global Warming Carbon Dioxide Rays Greenhouse Effect Amounts
good, and in others it could be considered bad. In northern regions of the United States, an
increase in the temperature and amount of rain could actually extend the growing season of crops.
This would in turn mean more money for farmers in the northern region. It could also hurt some
farmers. Too much rain is bad for some crops. Certain areas will actually get less rain, which
would lead to more droughts and have a negative impact on crops. Warm and wet weather is
usually a factor that promotes tropical storms. Global warming would lead to tropical storms?
appearing with greater frequency. More rain will also force plant life to adjust. Forests and plant
life migrate naturally, but scientists say that global warming would cause them to migrate at a
much faster rate. If the climate changes the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change says,
?some forest species in North America will shift by as much as 300 miles to the north?
(www.pirg.org/enviro/global_w/fact.htm). If a region is getting more rain and plants on the
border of that region need rain to survive, they will naturally begin growing in the new region.
The Environmental Media Services Organization has found that the greenhouse effect
?could drive global temperatures up as much as 6 degrees by the year 2100 - an increase in heat
comparable to the 10 degree warming that ended the last ice age?
(www.ems.org/climate/sub2_html). If a ten degree warming was the factor that ended the ice
age, imagine what another warming by about that same amount could do. Scientists believe that a
warming of only 6 degrees would cause glaciers to melt at a high rate. This would cause an
increase in the level of the oceans. According to the article ?Turning up the Heat: How Global
Warming Threatens Life in the Sea,? coastal cities and islands would be in danger of flooding if
the ocean levels rose: ?Only a 1-cm rise in sea level can erode a full 1 meter of beach? (Berntson
and Mathews-Amos www.worldwildelife.org/news/pups/wwf_ocean.htm). Sea ice would also be
susceptible to melting, which would raise the water level even more.
Global warming will not just make sea levels rise, it will also affect sea life. Corals ?are
intolerant of temperatures just a few degrees warmer than usual? (ibid.). Small increases in the
temperature can kill corals. There have been problems with corals dying in the past few years
because of increased water temperatures. Other marine life may migrate northward or southward
because the waters are warmer. The warm water would make them think that they were in their
natural habitat, when they were actually migrating toward the poles. Food would be scarce in
their new habitat.
Patterns of the circulation of sea water are disturbed by global warming. Cold water
moves along the sea floor towards the equator and warm water around the equator moves toward
the poles across the surface of the ocean. It is known as thermohaline circulation. It is a very
important process concerning ocean life. This circulation process brings oxygenated water to the
sea floor. If this did not happen, ?water along the sea floor would become depleted of the oxygen
organisms need to survive? (ibid.).
Fish, such as salmon, are also sensitive to the temperature of the water. During the
summer when the water is warm, salmon have a higher metabolic rate. During the winter months,
their metabolism slows down, which is good because less food is available. With global warming
and increased water temperatures, salmon would have a higher metabolic rate, even if it were
during the winter. Less food would be available for them and many salmon would die.
Another impact of global warming will be that some diseases are likely to be spread more
easily. Mosquitoes are a major carrier of tropical diseases. They are commonly known for
carrying malaria, cholera, and dengue fever. Malaria outbreaks are usually confined to ?where the
minimum winter temperature reaches no lower than 16 [degrees Celsius],? according to the World
Wide Fund for Nature, an independent conservation organization
(www.panda.org/climate/climate_docs/health_factsheet/malria.htm). Scientists are beginning to
notice that malaria outbreaks are occurring outside these places. They are attributing this to
increased temperatures from global warming. Places such as California, Texas, Florida, Michigan,
and New York have had more cases of malaria. People from these states know that the summers
have been very hot and humid lately. Malaria mosquitoes thrive in hot and humid weather.
Increased temperatures and more rain in some areas will cause hot and humid weather, which will
allow for mosquitoes to migrate to new places and spread the disease. A study suggests that
?malaria transmission would increase from 45% of the globe to 60%, if atmospheric levels of
greenhouse gases reach concentrations equivalent to a doubling of CO2 since the industrial
revolution? (ibid.). Cholera and dengue fever are also carried by mosquitoes and thrive in warm
and moist climates. As with malaria, more cholera and dengue fever outbreaks would occur
because of migrating mosquitoes.
As stated earlier, the warming of the oceans will increase the amount of carbon dioxide in
the atmosphere and will make global warming a problem of increasing severity. There are other
ways that this happens too. As the weather becomes warmer, more organic matter in the ground
will be decomposed. This causes carbon dioxide to be released into the atmosphere: ?If average
temperatures would rise by .3 degrees C per decade, soils will release an amount of CO2 equal to
nearly 20 percent of the projected amount released by combustion of fossil fuels? (Murck, Skinner
and Porter 495 ). Gas hydrates will also decompose with warmer temperatures. Gas hydrates are
?icelike solids in which molecules of gas, mainly methane, are locked in the structure of water?
and are usually found in frozen soil or in ocean sediments (495). Scientists have found that ?gas
hydrates worldwide hold a total of 10,000 billion metric tons of carbon, twice the amount
contained in all the known coal, gas, and oil reserves on the land? (495). When temperatures
increase, frozen soil will melt and release gas hydrates, and hydrates from ocean sediment will also
break down. Because of this, more methane and carbon will be released into the atmosphere,
making the greenhouse effect even stronger. This will damage our environment even more.
Global warming is becoming a major problem as we move to the 21st century and beyond.
When more greenhouse gasses like carbon dioxide and methane are released, they trap heat rays
and keep them in our atmosphere. This causes an increase in temperature. Increases in
temperature can do a lot of damage, even in small increases. Only a few degrees ended the ice
age thousands of years ago. Another warming like that can have huge environmental effects.
Changes in temperature will upset water cycles. Some areas will get more precipitation, some
will get less. A warming of a few degrees would cause glaciers and sea ice to melt. This would
lead to ocean levels rising and would damage coastal cities and islands. It would also cause a
disruption in different species living in the ocean and increase the levels of some disease,
especially ones carried by mosquitoes, which thrive in warm climates. In order to stop global
warming, much has to be done. Although it is very difficult to reverse once the process is started,
global warming has to be stopped if we want to live like we are now. Emission of fossil fuels by
humans is a big factor in the amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. Controlling these
emissions is one of the first of many steps that we must take in order to combat global warming.
If it is not controlled, problems such as the aforementioned ones, along with others, will definitely
disrupt our living patterns.
Berntson, Ewann, ?Turning up the Heat: How Global Warming Threatens Life in the Sea.? World
Wildelife Fund and the Marine Conservation Biology Institute. 20 Jan. 2000